6th Round of 26th year

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1. ... disgusting water(2 points)

Many years ago you drank 2 dcl of water. Imagine that since then all the water on the Earth has mixed. If you drink 2 dcl of water today, how many molecules from the original water you drank does it contain?

2. ... stupid wire(2 points)

What is the minimal length of a wire so that if you hang it from a ceiling, it will break due to its own mass? The wire's density is $ρ$ = 7900 kg·m^{ − 3}, it has a diameter $D$ = 1 mm, and it breaks at $σ$_{max} = 400 MPa. Assume that everything takes place in a homogeneous gravitational field $g$ = 9.81 m·s^{ − 2}. Bonus   If the wire's length is maximal possible so that it does not break, how much will it stretch (in percents)? Young's modulus of the wire's material is $E$ = 200 GPa.

3. ... a drowned lens(4 points)

If an object is placed a distance $p$ from a thin glass lens (index of refraction $n$_{s}), we can see its image on a screen that is placed a distance $d$ from the lens. Without altering any distances, we immerse this system into a liquid (index of refraction $n$). Under what conditions can we still observe the object's image on the screen, and how far from lens would this image be?

4. ... filling a tank(4 points)

Imagine a large tank containg tea with a little opening at its bottom so that one can pour it into a glass. When open, the speed of the flow of tea from the tank is $v$_{0}. How will this speed change if, while pouring a glass of tea, someone is filling the tank by pouring water into it from its top? Assume that the diameter of the tank is $D$, the diameter of the flow of tea into the tank is $d$, and that of the flow of tea out of the tank is much smaller than $D$. The tea level is height $H$ above the lower opening, and the tank is being filled by pouring a water into it from height $h$ above the tea level. You are free to neglect all friction.

5. ... baseball(4 points)

Let us consider the following model of a baseball player hitting a ball. Baseball bat is a thin homogeneous rod of length $L$ and mass $m$. The bat can only rotate around an axis perpendicular to the axis of the bat that is located at its end. The bat is rotating with an angular velocity $ω$. How far from the end of the bat should the player hit the ball in order to minimize the force with which the bat acts on the player's hands?

P. ... turn it of – I can't!(5 points)

How many people per second can be killed by a nuclear reactor without any protective walls?

E. ... a balloon accident(8 points)

A loaded falling balloon will eventually reach certain constant terminal velocity. Measure how does this velocity depend on the balloon size, and on the mass of its load.

S. ... series(6 points)

* Calculate the time a tokamak COMPASS can store an energy for. The energy of its plasma is 5 kJ, and its ohmic heating is 300 kW.

  • Calculate the alpha heating in tokamak COMPASS if it used a DT mixture. Typical plasma temperature is 1 keV, hustota 10^{20} m^{ − 3}, and the volume of the plasma 1 m³. Assuming the ohmic heating from the preceeding question, calculate $Q$.
  • Using the picture from the main text and knowledge of the DD reaction ^{2}_{1}D + ^{2}_{1}D → ^{3}_{2}He + n + 3,27 MeV (50 %),

{2}_{1}D + {2}_{1}D →

¾ energie v of the energy in the first reaction are carried off by a neutron, calculate the total plasma heating that will occure during one DD reaction (assume that it is followed by a DT fusion with the product of the second reaction). Also estimate the requirements on the confinment time assuming density odhadněte nároky na dobu udržení při hustotě 10^{20} m^{ − 3} a teplotě 10 keV.

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